Groundwater emerges from springs.
Spring water is cold, only 6 – 8 °C.
The temperature does not vary much throughout the year.
This means that cold springs are a stable environment in which to live.
The water is rich in oxygen and clean,
because the spring is constantly replenished
with new fresh groundwater.
For species which are sensitive to pollution,
low levels of oxygen or drought,
a spring is a place where they can survive.